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Measures > Measure Information
Calculated EI - Steady State and Change Over Time
General Information
Measure Name: Calculated EI - Steady State and Change Over Time
Measure Type: Derived
Construct: Energy Intake
Primary Content Area: Nutrition
Secondary Content Area: Obesity
Brief Description: This measurement provides an estimate of the changes in energy intake over time. The method requires baseline information about sex, age, and height along with repeated body weight data and optional physical activity data (e.g., from an accelerometer). The method calculates the changes in energy intake over time that correspond to the measured body weight changes using a mathematical model of adult human energy balance dynamics.

Under static conditions of body weight and composition stability, EI must be equal to TEE. EI "steady state" refers to EI when body composition and mass are not changing over time and can be presumed equal to the calculated TEE (1). It should be noted that this does not include or account for variations in diet composition or the possible effects on the partitioning of stored calories that might occur, for example, as a result of weight loss with a resistance training component (increased partitioning of stored calories as FFM) versus aerobic training (2).

During dynamic periods of weight change (EI does not equal EE), measuring EI is more difficult. Self-reported EI measures have been shown to be inaccurate (3) but changes in EI during such periods can be mathematically modeled with measures of EE and body composition dynamics (4). This model has recently been validated against the intake-balance method in a 2-year calorie-restriction experiment in 140 people of varying age and BMI (5), and it requires only baseline anthropometric and demographic information along with repeated body weight measurements over the course of the intervention. There are assumptions underlying this model, such as the stability of REE and PAL. More frequent body weight measurement increases the precision of the calculated changes in EI over time, and physical activity time course data (e.g., from actigraphy measurements) can also be incorporated to account for changes in NREE. The full description of this calculation, including MatLab Code information can be found on the attached pdf.

1. Bucholz A, Schoeller D. Is a calorie a calorie. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:899S-906S.
2. Beavers K, Ambrosius W, Rejeski W, et al. Effect of exercise type during intentional weight loss on body composition in older adults with obesity. Obesity
(Silver Spring) 2016;25:1823-1829.
3. Schoeller D. How accurate is self-reported dietary energy intake ? Nutr Rev 1990; 48:373-379.
4. Berstad P, Randby A, Ekeland G, Ulveland H. Body fat and fat-free mass measured by bioelectric impedance spectroscopy and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in obese and non-obese adults. Br J Nutr 2012;28:1192-1200.
5. Sanghvi A, Redman L, Martin C, Ravussin E, Hall K. Validation of an inexpensive and accurate mathematical method to measure long-term changes in free-living energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr 2015;102:353-358.
Keywords: energy intake, calorie intake, food intake
Target Population: Adult humans
Mode of Administration: Who Administered: Researcher, Interpreted data
How Administered: In-person, Other
Other/Uncategorized/To-be-decided: Biological
Measure Characteristics
Contact Information

(Last Updated: 3/16/2018 4:06:31 PM by Paul MacLean)

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