National Cancer Institute
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IL-6, TNF-alpha, CRP
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Measure Name: IL-6, TNF-alpha, CRP
Measure Type: Scale
Construct: Biomarkers - Inflammation
Primary Content Area: Obesity
Secondary Content Area: Diabetes
Brief Description: Key inflammatory cytokines include interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and C-reactive protein (CRP). For weight loss studies, they should be measured in the fasted state before, during, and after weight loss. These inflammatory factors could mediate or moderate the impact of metabolic dysfunction on treatment outcomes. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a true adipokine and is elevated in obesity (1). C-reactive protein is made in the liver, largely in response to IL-6, which is produced in liver and skeletal muscle. These molecules represent three different sources of inflammatory markers and are all associated with the subsequent risk for type 2 diabetes (2) and cardiovascular disease (3). By using network modeling that combined biological, gut microbiota, and environmental factors relevant to weight trajectories, baseline levels of IL-6 and plasma insulin most accurately classified individuals who did or did not lose weight and maintain weight loss (4). The global inflammatory status could be assessed by larger panels, but these biomarkers should be sufficient at present to examine the strength of the link between inflammation and treatment outcomes.

1. Moller K, Ostermann A, Rund K, et al. Influence of weight reduction on blood levels of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-6, and oxylipins in obese subjects. Prostagalndins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2016;106:39-49.
2. Rubin D, McMurray R, Harrell J, Hackney A, Thorpe D, Hagg A. The association between insulin resistance and cytokines in adolescents: the role of weight status and exercise. Metabolism 2008;57:683-690.
3. Espinola-Klein C, Gori T, Blankenberg S, Munzie T. Inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease risk in the metabolic syndrome. Front Biosci 2011;16:1663- 1674.
4. Kong L, Wuillemin P, Bastard J, et al. Insulin resistance and inflammation predict kinetic body weight changes in response to dietary weight loss and maintenance in overweight and obese subjects by using a Bayesian network approach. Amer J Clin Nutr 2013;98:1385-1394.
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(Last Updated: 3/19/2018 12:03:58 PM by Paul MacLean)

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