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Measures > Measure Information
Insulin, Glucagon
General Information
Measure Name: Insulin, Glucagon
Measure Type: Scale
Construct: Biomarkers - Metabolic Function
Primary Content Area: Obesity
Secondary Content Area: Diabetes
Brief Description: Metabolic (anabolic and catabolic) function, insulin sensitivity, and glucose control could serve as mediators or moderators of treatment responses and have been shown to influence patterns of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance (1,2). Some studies have suggested that diet macronutrient content may influence weight-loss intervention efficacy according to the level of insulin sensitivity (3). Fasting levels of insulin, glucagon, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) can be measured before, during, and after weight loss. Along with the metabolite data, these measures can be utilized to calculate indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and homeostatic model assessment for b-cell function (88). There was some discussion that an oral glucose tolerance test should also be included to provide a more accurate assessment of glucose control. However, there was insufficient evidence that the oral glucose tolerance test would provide sufficient added value over the other surrogate biomarkers of metabolic function for weight loss outcomes, and it is suggested only when resources are available. There are more invasive measures of insulin secretion and sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, intravenous glucose tolerance test, etc.) and more comprehensive measures of key aspects of metabolic flexibility, but these tests are not feasible for all large-scale clinical weight-loss trials.

1. Courcoulas A, Christian M, O’Rourke R, et al. Preoperative factors and 3-year weight change in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) consortium. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2015;11:1109-1118.
2. Look AHEAD Study Group; Espeland M, Bray G, Neiberg R, et al. Describing patterns of weight changes using principal components analysis: results from the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) research group. Ann Epidemiol 2009; 19:701-710.
3. Cornier M, Donahoo W, Pereira R, et al. Insulin sensitivity determines the effectiveness of dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss in obese women. Obes Res 2005;13:703-709.
Keywords: nutrient sensing, glucose control
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Mode of Administration: Who Administered: Researcher
How Administered: In-person
Other/Uncategorized/To-be-decided: Biological
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(Last Updated: 3/19/2018 12:42:12 PM by Paul MacLean)

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